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Uhlu lwama-penicillin: Ukusetshenziswa, izinhlobo ezivamile nolwazi lokuphepha

Uhlu lwama-penicillin: Ukusetshenziswa, izinhlobo ezivamile nolwazi lokuphephaImininingwane Yezidakamizwa

I-Penicillin yatholwa ngo-1928 ngu-Alexander Fleming, ongudokotela waseMelika waseScotland nodokotela. Yaqanjwa ngegama layo Isikhunta sePenicillium lapho uFleming eqaphela ukuthi isikhunta sikhombisa izakhiwo ezilwa namagciwane. Ukutholakala kwe-penicillin kuzoguqula umhlaba wezokwelapha njenge-antibiotic yokuqala yangempela yesimanje. Namuhla, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zama-penicillin akhiqizwayo ukwelapha ukutheleleka kwamagciwane.

Funda ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nesigaba sama-antibiotic sama-penicillin, ukuthi asetshenziswa kanjani, nokuthi yimiphi imiphumela engemihle angayibangela.



Uhlu lwama-penicillin
Igama lomkhiqizo (igama elejwayelekile) Intengo yemali emaphakathi Intengo ye-SingleCare Funda kabanzi
I-Amoxil (amoxicillin) $ 23.99 ngama-20, amaphilisi angama-250 mg Thola amakhuphoni e-amoxicillin Imininingwane ye-Amoxicillin
I-Augmentin (amoxicillin / clavulanate) $ 72.99 ngamaphilisi angama-20, 500-125 mg Thola amakhuphoni e-amoxicillin / clavulanate Imininingwane ye-Amoxicillin / clavulanate
I-Unasyn (ampicillin / sulbactam) Isisombululo esingu- $ 110.36 nge-16, 3 (2-1) gm sakhiwe kabusha Thola amakhuphoni e-ampicillin / sulbactam Imininingwane ye-Ampicillin / sulbactam
I-Dycill (dicloxacillin) $ 103.99 ngama-40, 500 mg amaphilisi Thola amakhuphoni e-dicloxacillin Imininingwane ye-Dicloxacillin
I-Bactocill (oxacillin) $ 104 per 10, 1 gm solution kabusha Thola amakhuphoni e-oxacillin Imininingwane ye-Oxacillin
Ipeni VK (i-penicillin V potassium) $ 40.67 ngama-28, amaphilisi angama-500 mg Thola amakhuphoni e-penicillin V potassium Imininingwane ye-Penicillin V potassium
I-Pfizerpen (i-penicillin G potassium) $ 47 per 1, 5000000 solution solution eyakhiwe kabusha Thola amakhuphoni e-penicillin G potassium Imininingwane ye-Penicillin G potassium

Amanye ama-penicillin afaka:

  • I-Pipracil (piperacillin)
  • Zosyn (piperacillin kanye ne-tazobactam)
  • I-timentin (i-ticarcillin ne-clavulanate)
  • I-Ticar (ticarcillin)
  • I-Geocillin (carbenicillin)
  • I-Permapen (i-penicillin G benzathine)
  • I-Nallpen (nafcillin)
  • I-Floxapen (i-flucloxacillin)
  • I-Natacillin (hetacillin)
  • I-Mezlin (mezlocillin)

Yini i-penicillin?

I-penicillin ingeyeqembu le ama-antibiotic okujwayele ukunikezwa ukwelapha ukutheleleka ngamagciwane. Ama-penicillin ayingxenye yesigaba esibanzi semithi elwa namagciwane eyaziwa njenge ama-antibiotics e-beta-lactam . Lawa ma-antibiotic aqukethe indandatho ye-beta-lactam njengengxenye yesakhiwo sawo samakhemikhali. Ama-penicillin anomsebenzi oqinile we-antimicrobial olwa namagciwane amaningi ahlukahlukene. Zinganikezwa njengamaphilisi omlomo, amaphilisi omlomo, ukumiswa oketshezi, kanye nemijovo efakwa emthanjeni (IV).



Isebenza kanjani i-penicillin?

I-penicillin isebenza ngokuvimba ikhono lama-bacterium lokugcina udonga lwamaseli awo. I- udonga lwama-bacterial cell isakhiwo esibalulekile esakhiwa yi-molecule ebizwa nge-peptidoglycan esiza amangqamuzana ukugcina isimo sawo. Ngaphandle kodonga lwamaseli awo, amabhaktheriya awanakuphila, okuholela ekuqhumeni (lysis) nasekufeni kwamaseli. Ngenxa yokuthi abulala ama-bacterium ngqo, ama-penicillin abhekwa njengama-antibiotics abulala amagciwane. Ama-penicillin ngokuvamile asebenza ngokulwa namagciwane ane-gram-positive, kepha ama-penicillin ahlukene angakhomba ezinye izinhlobo zama-bacteria.

Kusetshenziselwani i-penicillin?

I-penicillin isetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukutheleleka kwamagciwane endlebeni, ekhaleni nasemphinjeni. Ibuye isetshenziselwe ukwelapha ukutheleleka kwamagciwane ezinsini, isikhumba, umgudu wokuphefumula ophansi, isisu, amathumbu, izinso nesinye. I-penicillin kufanele isetshenziselwe kuphela ukwelapha ukutheleleka okubangelwa amagciwane ukuthinteka kuma-penicillin.



IPenicillin nayo ingaphatha okulandelayo:

  • I-Meningitis
  • I-Endocarditis
  • Inyumoniya
  • Isifo sokuqhuma
  • Ugcunsula

I-penicillin ingasebenza ngokulwa nezinhlobo eziningana zamagciwane kufaka phakathi:

amavithamini amahle kakhulu okusiza ngokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile
  • IListeria
  • I-Neisseria
  • Shigella
  • Salmonella
  • UKlebsiella
  • E. coli
  • H. influenzae
  • UPseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Ama-bacteriides fragilis

Izinhlobo ze-penicillin

Ama-penicillin emvelo

Ama-penicillin emvelo aqukethe i-penicillin G-like antibiotic, kufaka phakathi i-penicillin V potassium. Lawa ma-penicillin ayephakathi kwama-antibiotic okuqala asetshenziselwa ukwelapha izifo ezibangelwa amagciwane. Zisebenza ngokuvimbela ukuhlanganiswa kodonga lweseli ukubulala amabhaktheriya, futhi zisebenza ngokuyinhloko ngokulwa namagciwane ane-gram-positive namanye amabhaktheriya ane-gram-negative. Ama-penicillin emvelo afaka i-penicillin G ne-penicillin V.



Ama-Aminopenicillins

Njengama-penicillin emvelo, ama-aminopenicillin asebenza ngokuvimbela ukuhlanganiswa kodonga lwama-bacterial cell. Kodwa-ke, zingakhomba indawo ebanzi yamagciwane; ama-aminopenicillin ayasebenza ngokulwa namagciwane amaningi ane-gram-positive, enterococci, kanye nama-bacilli angenayo i-gram-negative, afana noH. influenzae no-E. coli. Ama-aminopenicillin ngokuvamile ahlanganiswa ne-beta-lactamase inhibitor efana ne-clavulanate noma i-sulbactam ukuze asebenze kangcono. Izibonelo zifaka i-ampicillin, i-amoxicillin, ne-hetacillin.

I-penicillin ebanzi (i-antipseudomonal)

I-wide-spectrum, noma i-antipseudomonal, penicillin yiqembu lama-anti-penicillin antibiotic anomsebenzi ofanayo wokulwa namagciwane njenge-aminopenicillins kanye nomsebenzi owengeziwe wokulwa ne-Pseudomonas nezinhlobo ezithile zezinhlobo ze-Enterobacter ne-Serratia. Njengamanye ama-penicillin, ama-penipillin antipseudomonal ngokuvamile athathwa nge-beta-lactamase inhibitors. Ama-penicillin ama-Antipseudomonal avame ukunikezwa nelinye ikilasi lama-antibiotic elibizwa ngama-aminoglycosides ukwelapha izifo ezibangelwa yi-Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Izibonelo zama-antipseudomonal penicillin afaka i-piperacillin, i-carbenicillin, i-ticarcillin, ne-mezlocillin.

I-beta-lactamase inhibitors

Amanye amabhaktheriya akhiqiza i-beta-lactamase, i-enzyme engasebenzi ama-antibiotics e-beta-lactam. I-beta-lactamase inhibitors wuhlobo lomuthi olwa nokumelana namagciwane kuma-antibiotics e-beta-lactam. Ngokuvamile zihlanganiswa ne-penicillin antibiotic ukuvimbela i-penicillin ekuqhekekeni, okusiza ukwandisa ukusebenza kwayo. I-beta-lactamase inhibitors ayinayo imisebenzi yokulwa namagciwane lapho isetshenziswa yodwa. Izibonelo zifaka phakathi i-clavulanate (noma i-clavulanic acid), i-sulbactam, ne-tazobactam.



Amapenicillin amelana ne-penicillinase

Ama-penicillinase ukumelana nama-penicillin yiqembu lama-penicillin asetshenziselwa ukwelapha i-penicillinase ekhiqiza i-methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Zingasetshenziselwa ukwelapha iStreptococcus pneumoniae kanye neqembu A lokutheleleka kwe-streptococcal, kanye nezinhlobo ezithile zezifo ezithinta imethicillin-sensitive staphylococcal. Izinhlobo eziphikisanayo zala magciwane zikhiqiza i-enzyme ebizwa nge-penicillinase, engavimbela ama-antibiotics e-penicillin. Izibonelo zama-penicillinase-resistant-penicillin afaka i-oxacillin, i-dicloxacillin, i-nafcillin, i-flucloxacillin, ne-cloxacillin.

Ubani ongathatha i-penicillin?

Abantu abadala

I-penicillin ingasetshenziswa ukwelapha ukutheleleka kwamagciwane kubantu abadala. Isilinganiso siyahlukahluka kuye ngohlobo lwe-penicillin nokwakheka okusetshenzisiwe. Kubantu abadala, amanani we-penicillin ngokuvamile alinganiswa ngama-milligram.



Izingane

I-penicillin ingenye yama-antibiotic anqunywe kakhulu ezinganeni. Ukutheleleka okuningi okuvamile kwengane okuthinta izindlebe, ikhala, nomphimbo kuvame ukuphathwa ngemithi elwa ne-penicillin. Cishe 10% yezingane zitholwe zine-penicillin yokungezwani komzimba, yize izingane eziningi ezitholakale zingenayo ukungezwani komzimba kweqiniso kuma-antibiotic. Isibonelo, imiphumela emibi yamathumbu ayithathwa njengokungezwani komzimba wangempela. Ezinganeni, amanani we-penicillin ngokuvamile abalwa kusetshenziswa ama-milligram ngekhilogremu ngalinye lesisindo somzimba.

Ingabe i-penicillin iphephile?

I-penicillin ngokuvamile iphephile ekwelapheni izifo ezithathelwanayo uma inikezwa ngemithamo efanele. Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-penicillin kungaholela ubuthi besistimu yezinzwa ephakathi , okungabonakala njengokuquleka. Ingozi yobuthi besistimu yezinzwa ephakathi ingaphakama kubantu abanezinkinga zezinso, noma izinso.



Ezimweni ezingavamile, i-penicillin ingadala ukusabela kwe-anaphylactic. I-penicillin kufanele igwenywe kubantu abanomlando wokusabela kwe-hypersensitivity ku-penicillin. Izimpawu ze-anaphylaxis zibandakanya ukuqubuka, ukulunywa, ukuvuvukala, nenkinga yokuphefumula. Ukusabela kwe-Anaphylactic kudinga ukwelashwa ngokushesha. Labo abanomlando wokungezwani komzimba ne-penicillin kufanele futhi bagweme ukuthatha okuphuma ku-penicillin, i-cephalosporins, i-carbapenems, ne-monobactam antibiotic.

unganikeza i-ibuprofen ne-tylenol ngasikhathi sinye

Ezimweni lapho enye indlela yokulungisa i-penicillin-hlobo elwa namagciwane ingeke ifanele, isiguli singahlolwa isikhumba ukuze sihlole ukutholakala kokungezwani komzimba ne-penicillin. Uma ukuhlolwa kwesikhumba kutholakala, a inqubo yokwehliswa kwesimilo ingaqaliswa ukuphatha kancane kancane i-antibiotic kuze kube yilapho ibekezeleleka futhi isebenza kahle.



UPenicillin uyakhumbula

Azikho izikhumbuzo zamanje ze-penicillin kusukela ngoFebhuwari 2021.

Imikhawulo ye-penicillin

I-penicillin ayisetshenziselwa ukwelapha izifo ezibangelwa amagciwane noma isikhunta. Ukuvikela ukuvikela ama-antibiotic, i-penicillin kufanele isetshenziselwe kuphela ukwelapha ukutheleleka ngamagciwane okuhlaselwa i-penicillin. I-penicillin kufanele isetshenziswe kuphela ngemithi esemthethweni evela kudokotela. Amanani we-penicillin angadinga ukulungiswa noma anciphiswe ezigulini ezinezinkinga ezinzima zezinso.

Ungathatha i-penicillin ngenkathi ukhulelwe noma uncelisa?

I-penicillin ngokuvamile iphephile ukusetshenziswa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nalapho uncelisa. Ucwaningo ezilwaneni alukhombisanga ukuthi ama-penicillin athwala ingozi yokulimaza umbungu. I-Penicillin G iyimithi elwa namagciwane ephumelelayo yokuvikela i- ukudluliswa kukagcunsula kusuka kumama kuya embungwini. Umhlinzeki wezokunakekelwa kwempilo kufanele aboniswe ngemithi elwa namagciwane efanele ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa noma lapho uncelisa.

Ingabe ama-penicillin alawulwa yizinto?

Cha, i-penicillin akuyona into elawulwayo.

Imiphumela emibi ejwayelekile ye-penicillin

Imiphumela emibi kakhulu yama-penicillin ifaka:

  • Uhudo
  • Isicanucanu
  • Ukuhlanza
  • Isisu sicasukile
  • Ubuhlungu besisu
  • Ukuqhuma kwesikhumba
  • Ukulunywa
  • Isifuba
  • Amabala amhlophe noma amnyama olimini noma emlonyeni
  • Ukuphendula kwesayithi lokujova njengokubomvu, ukulunywa nokuvuvukala (lapho i-antibiotic inikezwa ngomzila we-intravenous)

Imiphumela emibi emibi yama-penicillin ingafaka:

  • Ubuthi besistimu yezinzwa ephakathi
  • Ukuvuvukala ezinso
  • Ukubalwa kwamaseli egazi amhlophe aphansi
  • Izinga eliphansi leplatelet
  • IClostridioides ehambisana nesifo sohudo

Ukubalwa kwamaseli egazi amhlophe aphansi, noma i-leukopenia, kungumphumela ovamile omubi we-nafcillin. Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-penicillin okunikezwa ngemithambo yegazi kungadala amazinga aphansi eplatelet, angakhuphula ingozi yokopha.

IPenicillin ingaguqula ukukhula kwamagciwane ajwayelekile kukholoni futhi ibangele ukwanda kwebhaktheriya elibizwa AmaClostridioides difficile (phambilini obaziwa ngokuthi IClostridium difficile ). Lolu hlobo lwama-bacteria lungadala i-pseudomembranous colitis, noma ukuvuvukala kwekholoni, kanye nohudo olukhulu. Yize uhudo oluncane luvamile ngama-antibiotic, kufanele kuthintwe umhlinzeki wezokunakekelwa kwezempilo uma uhudo olunamandla lutholakala ngemuva kokusebenzisa i-penicillin.

Ama-penicillin afana ne-ticarcillin ne-carbenicillin angadinga ukugwenywa noma ukugadwa ezigulini ezinenkinga yenhliziyo noma yezinso. Lezi zinhlobo zama-penicillin zingadala amazinga akhuphukile e-sodium egazini.

Kubiza malini i-penicillin?

Ama-antibiotic amaningi e-penicillin ayatholakala ngezinhlobo ezijwayelekile. Uhlobo olujwayelekile lwe-antibiotic ngokuvamile lushibhile kunegama lomkhiqizo ngenkathi lusebenza ngokulinganayo. Ama-antibiotic ama-penicillin nawo ahlanganiswa nezinhlelo eziningi ze-Medicare nezinhlelo zomshuwalense. Izindleko ezilinganiselwe zokuthengisa i-penicillin V potassium zingaba ngama- $ 40 ngokuya ngomthamo obekiwe.

Iziguli zingakwazi ukonga kuma-anti-penicillin antibiotic ngokusebenzisa izinhlelo ezahlukahlukene zokonga ezivela kubakhiqizi nakumakhemisi. Amakhadi wokonga izaphulelo ayatholakala futhi ukusiza ukwehlisa izindleko zama-anti-penicillin antibiotic.