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Yini i-insulin? Imikhiqizo ejwayelekile nokuthi isebenza kanjani

Yini i-insulin? Imikhiqizo ejwayelekile nokuthi isebenza kanjaniImininingwane Yezidakamizwa

Uhlu lwe-insulin | Yini i-insulin? | Isebenza kanjani | Isebenzisa | Izinhlobo | Ngubani ongathatha i-insulin? | Ukuphepha | Okuqhamuka uma udla imishanguzo | Izindleko

I-insulin yihomoni eyenzeka ngokwemvelo esiza umzimba ukulawula amazinga kashukela egazini futhi inikeze amaseli amandla. Isifo sikashukela, esaziwa kakhulu njengesifo sikashukela, yisimo lapho i-bikhono le-ody lokukhiqiza noma lokuphendula i-hormone insulin alisebenzi kahle, okuholela kushukela ophakeme wegazi. Kubantu abanesifo sikashukela sohlobo 1, amanyikwe awasenzi i-insulin ne-insulin shots kuyadingeka ukusebenzisa ushukela ekudleni. Labo abanesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2 basengayenza i-insulin, kodwa kungenzeka ingabi ngamanani anele noma imizimba yabo ingaphenduli kahle kwi-insulin etholakalayo (eyaziwa ngokuthi ukumelana ne-insulin). Mayelana 30% yabantu abanesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2 nabo badinga imijovo ye-insulin.



Leli thebula libala ama-insulins asetshenziswa kakhulu alandelwa imininingwane yokuthi asebenza kanjani, aphatha ziphi izimo, ukuphepha nezindleko.



indlela esheshayo yokususa ukhunta lwe-nail

OKUSHIWO: Thayipha 1 vs. Uhlobo 2 sikashukela

Uhlu lwama-insulins

Igama lomuthi Intengo yemali emaphakathi Intengo ye-SingleCare Funda kabanzi
I-Humalog (i-insulin lispro) $ 316.22 ngesitsha ngasinye Thola amakhuphoni we-Humalog I-Humalog vs. Novolog
I-Novolog (i-insulin aspart) $ 384 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni we-Novolog Imininingwane ka-Novolog
I-Apidra (i-insulin glulisine) $ 325 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni e-Apidra Imininingwane ye-Apidra
I-Humulin R (i-insulin ejwayelekile) $ 698 per 6, 3 mL of 500 unit / mL pens Thola amakhuphoni we-Humulin R Imininingwane ka-Humulin R
I-Novolin R (i-insulin ejwayelekile) $ 220 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni kaNovolin R Imininingwane kaNovolin R.
I-Humulin N (i-NPH insulin) $ 123 ngepeni ngalinye Thola amakhuphoni we-Humulin N Imininingwane ka-Humulin N.
I-Novolin N (i-NPH insulin) $ 231 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni kaNovolin N Imininingwane kaNovolin N.
I-Lantus (i-insulin glargine) $ 452 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni e-Lantus Imininingwane kaLantus
I-Basaglar (i-insulin glargine) $ 95 per 3, 3 mL of 100 unit / mL pen Thola amakhuphoni we-Basaglar KwikPen Imininingwane ye-Basaglar KwikPen
I-Levemir (insulini detemir) $ 490 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni weLevemir Imininingwane kaLevemir
I-Tresiba (i-insulin degludec) $ 506 nge-1, 10 mL ye-100 unit / mL vial Thola amakhuphoni kaTresiba Imininingwane kaTresiba
I-Toujeo (i-insulin glargine egxilile) $ 180 per 1, 1.5 mL of 300 unit / mL Ipeni leSolostar Thola amakhuphoni weToujeo Solostar Imininingwane kaToujeo Solostar

Amanye ama-insulins

  • I-Admelog (i-insulin lispro)
  • I-Fiasp (i-insulin aspart)
  • I-insulini lispro protamine
  • I-Lyumjev (i-insulin lispro)
  • I-Myxredlin (i-insulin ejwayelekile)
  • I-Semglee (i-insulin glargine)
  • I-Soliqua (Insulin Glargine-lixisenatide)
  • I-Xultophy (i-insulin degludec-liraglutide)

Ama-insulins asengaphambi kwesikhathi



  • I-Humalog Mix 50/50 - 50% NPH, 50% Humalog (lispro)
  • I-Humalog Mix 75/25 - 75% NPH, 25% Humalog (lispro)
  • I-Novolog Mix 70/30 - 70% NPH, 30% Novolog (aspart)
  • I-Humulin 50/50 - 50% NPH, 50% ejwayelekile
  • I-Humulin 70/30 - 70% NPH, i-30% ejwayelekile
  • UNovolin 70/30 - 70% NPH, 30% ejwayelekile

I-powder yokuphefumula esebenza ngokushesha

  • I-Afrezza inhalation powder (i-insulin yomuntu)

Yini i-insulin?

I-insulin yihomoni yemvelo efihliwe ngamaseli akhethekile, abizwa ngama-beta cells, atholakala kumanyikwe. I-insulin ilawula imisebenzi eminingi emzimbeni enikeza amaseli ngeamandla abawadingayo ukuze baphile futhi bakhule. Kubantu abangenaso isifo sikashukela, ukukhiqizwa kwe-insulin nokukhululwa kuyinkqubo eyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu, evumela umzimba ukuthi ugcine ngokucophelela amazinga kashukela wegazi ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zawo.

Kusukela ngama-1920s, lapho abacwaningi bethola futhi behlukanisa i-insulin, isayensi yezokwelapha yenze amagxathu amakhulu ekwakheni imikhiqizo emisha yokwelashwa kwe-insulin evumela abantu abanesifo sikashukela abancike ku-insulin ukuthi balawule ngokujwayelekile okujwayelekile kumashukela abo egazi.



Isebenza kanjani i-insulin?

Ngokushesha ngemuva kokudla, ukudla okudliwayo, ikakhulukazi ama-carbohydrate , ihlehla ngokushesha ibe uhlobo oluthile lukashukela olubizwa ngokuthi i-glucose olumunceke egazini. Lokhu kukhuphuka okusheshayo kukashukela egazini kubangela ukuthi i-insulin ikhishwe emanyanyeni. I-insulin ivumela amangqamuzana emzimbeni, njengamaseli emisipha, ukuthi amunce i-glucose ukuze ayisebenzise njengomthombo wamandla. I-insulin ineminye imiphumela, kepha ikakhulukazi ilawula ukuthi umzimba uyisebenzisa kanjani i-glucose.

Kubantu abanesifo sikashukela, uma umzimba ungakhiqizi i-insulin eyanele noma ungayisebenzisi kahle, amazinga eglucose egazi ayanda futhi amaseli ahamba ngaphandle kwe-glucose adinga ukusebenza kahle. Uma amazinga eglucose egazi ehlala ephezulu kakhulu ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, izwe elaziwa njenge-hyperglycemia, lokhu kungakhuphula ubungozi besifo senhliziyo, isifo sohlangothi nezinye izinkinga zempilo.

Ukunqoba izinkinga ezihambisana namazinga aphezulu eglucose, abantu abanesifo sikashukela soHlobo 1 badinga i-insulin ngomjovo noma ngokusebenzisa ipompo ye-insulin. Labo abanesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2 bangaphendula ekushintsheni kwendlela yokuphila ukunciphisa amazinga aphezulu kashukela egazini, njengokudla nokuvivinya umzimba, noma bangadinga amaphilisi, i-insulin, noma inhlanganisela yemithi.



OKUSHIWO: Yini amazinga ejwayelekile eglucose yegazi?

Ngabe ama-insulins asetshenziselwa ini?

  • Thayipha isifo sikashukela sokuqala
  • Thayipha 2 sikashukela
  • Isifo sikashukela sokukhulelwa (abesifazane abahlakulela isifo sikashukela ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa)

Izinhlobo zama-insulins

Ama-insulins asebenza ngokushesha

Ama-insulins asebenza ngokushesha angama-insulin analogue noma izinhlobo eziguqulwe kancane ze-insulin yomuntu, ezisebenza ngokushesha nangokulindelekile. Baqala ukusebenza cishe imizuzu eyi-15 ngemuva kokujova, beqonge cishe ihora elilodwa kuya kwamabili, futhi bagcina phakathi kwamahora amabili kuya kwamane. Ama-insulins asebenza ngokushesha ahlanganisa ukudla okudliwe ngasikhathi sinye nomjovo futhi kuvame ukusetshenziswa nge-insulin esebenza isikhathi eside. Lawa ma-insulins yilawa ma-insulins avame kakhulu asetshenziswa kumaphampu e-insulin (ithuluzi elincane langaphandle elihambisa i-insulin ngepayipi elincanyana elibekwe ngaphansi kwesikhumba).

Amagama omkhiqizo ajwayelekile kuleli klasi:



  • I-Humalog ne-Admelog (i-insulin lispro)
  • I-Novolog ne-Fiasp (i-insulin aspart)
  • I-Apidra (i-insulin glulisine)

Ama-insulins asebenza okwesikhashana

Ama-insulins asebenza okwesikhashana (abizwa nangokuthi ama-insulins ajwayelekile) afinyelela egazini kungakapheli imizuzu engama-30 ngemuva kokujova, ukuphakama phakathi kwamahora amabili kuya kwamathathu, futhi kugcine cishe amahora amathathu kuya kwayisithupha. Lawa ma-insulins amboza ukudla okudliwe kungakapheli imizuzu engama-30 kuye kwangama-60 futhi kuvame ukusetshenziswa nge-insulin esebenza isikhathi eside.

Amagama omkhiqizo ajwayelekile kuleli klasi:

  • I-Humulin R, i-Novolin R, ne-ReliOn / i-Novolin R (i-insulin ejwayelekile yomuntu)
  • IVelosulin BR (i-insulin evamile ebhuqiwe ukuze isetshenziswe empompa ye-insulin)

Ama-insulins asebenza phakathi

Ama-insulins asebenza phakathi nendawo afinyelela egazini cishe emahoreni amabili kuya kwamane ngemuva kokujova, aphakeme amahora amane kuya kwayi-12 kamuva, futhi ahlala cishe amahora ayi-12 kuye kwayi-18. Lezi zimbozo ze-insulin zidinga cishe isigamu sosuku noma ubusuku bonke. Zivame ukusetshenziselwa i-insulin esheshayo noma esebenza okwesikhashana.



Amagama omkhiqizo ajwayelekile kuleli klasi:

kukhona okujwayelekile kokhilimu we-estrace
  • I-Humulin N, i-Novolin N, ne-ReliOn / i-Novolin N (i-NPH yabantu i-insulin)

Ama-insulins asebenza isikhathi eside

Ama-insulins asebenza isikhathi eside, abizwa nangokuthi ama-basal noma ama-insulins wangemuva, awanakho ukuphakama njengama-insulins asebenza amafushane. Ngokuvamile zifinyelela ekuhambeni kwegazi emahoreni ambalwa ngemuva kokujova futhi zisebenzela ukwehlisa amazinga kashukela kuze kube ngamahora angama-24. Lokhu kuvame ukuhlanganiswa ne-insulin esheshayo noma esebenza okwesikhashana.

Amagama omkhiqizo ajwayelekile kuleli klasi:

  • ILantus neBasaglar (i-insulin glargine)
  • I-Levemir (insulini detemir)
  • I-Tresiba (i-insulin degludec)
  • I-Humulin R U-500 (i-insulin ejwayelekile egxilile yomuntu)

I-insulin esebenza isikhathi eside

I-insulin esebenza isikhathi eside ifinyelela egazini cishe emahoreni ayisithupha, ayiqedi, futhi ihlala amahora angama-36 noma ngaphezulu.

Igama lomkhiqizo elijwayelekile kuleli klasi:

  • I-Toujeo U-300 (i-insulin glargine egxilile)

Ama-insulins asengaphambi kwesikhathi

Ama-insulins asengaphambi kokuhlanganiswa ahlanganisa izinhlobo ezimbili ezihlukene ze-insulin, i-insulin esheshayo noma esebenza okwesikhashana ene-insulin esezingeni eliphakathi, ukuhlinzeka ngesembozo sesikhathi sokudla kanye nokufakwa isikhathi eside osukwini. Lezi zivame ukuthathwa kabili noma kathathu ngosuku ngaphambi kwesikhathi sokudla. Inombolo yokuqala egameni itshela iphesenti le-insulin esebenza phakathi, inombolo yesibili iphesenti le-insulin esheshayo noma esebenza okwesikhashana (isb., I-Novolog Mix 70/30 iqukethe i-70% NPH kanye ne-30% insulin aspart).

Amagama omkhiqizo ajwayelekile kuleli klasi:

  • I-Humalog Mix 75/25 - 75% NPH, 25% Humalog (lispro)
  • I-Novolog Mix 70/30 - 70% NPH, 30% Novolog (aspart)
  • I-Humulin 70/30 - 70% NPH, i-30% ejwayelekile
  • INovolin 70/30 - 70% NPH, 30% ejwayelekile

I-powder yokuphefumula esebenza ngokushesha

Ukusebenza ngokushesha okuhogela i-insulin kuphakama egazini cishe emizuzwini eyi-15 kuye kwengama-20 futhi kuhlala cishe amahora amabili kuya kwamathathu. Kumele isetshenziswe kanye ne-insulin esebenza isikhathi eside kubantu abane-Type 1 diabetes.

Igama lomkhiqizo elijwayelekile kuleli klasi:

  • I-Afrezza inhalation powder (i-insulin yomuntu)

Ubani ongathatha ama-insulins?

Abantu abane-Type 1 diabetes

Bonke labo abanesifo sikashukela soHlobo 1, noma ngabe baneminyaka emingaki, kumele bathathe i-insulin. Amaseli we-beta kumanyikwe awasayenzi i-insulin futhi ukuze aphathe amazinga eglucose egazini, i-insulin kufanele ijojowe noma ifakwe iphampu ye-insulin.

Abantu abane-Type 2 diabetes

Uhlobo lwesibili sikashukela ngokuvamile luyisifo esiqhubekayo futhi iningi alidingi i-insulin lapho litholakala kuqala. Amazinga eglucose egazi avame ukulawulwa ngokushintshwa kwendlela yokuphila njengokuhlela ukudla ngokucophelela nokuzivocavoca umzimba. Izidakamizwa ze-antidiabetic, njengemithi yokwelapha efana ne-metformin noma i-non-insulin injectables, ingangezwa uma imigomo yezinga le-glucose yegazi ingafinyelelwa. Ngoba isifo sikashukela soHlobo 2 yisifo esiqhubekela phambili, kwesinye isikhathi ukukhiqizwa kwe-insulin kumanyikwe kungahle kunganeli futhi kungadingeka imijovo ye-insulin.

OKUSHIWO: Ungakwazi yini ukuguqula isifo sikashukela?

Abesifazane abakhulelwe abanesifo sikashukela sokukhulelwa

Isifo sikashukela sokukhulelwa sisho isifo sikashukela esitholakala ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kowesifazane. Ngokufana nohlobo 2 sikashukela, i-insulin ekhona kungenzeka inganeli ukugcina amazinga ejwayelekile eglucose yegazi futhi iqinisekise ukuthi amaseli athola uphethiloli awudingayo. Imvamisa imijovo ye-insulin iyadingeka ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa ukuvikela impilo yomama neyengane.

Izingane nentsha

Izingane nentsha enesifo sikashukela soHlobo 1 zincike ekwelashweni nge-insulin ukuze ziphile. I- I-International Society Yesifo Sikashukela Sezingane Nezingane (I-ISPAD) incoma ukuthi wonke amaqembu obudala, kufaka phakathi izingane, anikezwe ukwelashwa kwe-insulin okunikela ngokusondelene namazinga ejwayelekile kashukela kashukela ngangokunokwenzeka.

iyini ivithamini engcono kakhulu yokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile?

OKUSHIWO: Ingane yakho itholwe ukuthi inesifo sikashukela soHlobo 1. Yini elandelayo?

Ingabe ama-insulins aphephile?

Ingozi enkulu kakhulu yokuthatha i-insulin ushukela wegazi ophansi, noma i-hypoglycemia. Uma ingalashwa, ushukela ophansi wegazi ungaba yisimo esiphuthumayo kwezokwelapha. Ushukela wegazi ophansi uvame ukwelashwa ngokushesha ngokuphuza noma ngokudla ukudla okunoshukela omningi (isb., Ijusi lewolintshi noma uswidi). Kukhona nemikhiqizo, njengamaphilisi e-glucose noma i-glucagon yomjovo, abahlinzeki bezokunakekelwa kwempilo abangancoma ukuthi abasebenzisi be-insulin babe nayo. Ezinye izingozi ezinkulu ngokuthatha i-insulin ukusabela kwe-hypersensitivity (severe allergic) kanye hypokalemia (amazinga aphansi we-potassium egazi).

Imikhawulo ye-insulin

Ungayisebenzisi i-insulin uma:

  • Yiba ne-hypoglycemia (ushukela ophansi wegazi).
  • Yiba ne-hypersensitivities (i-allergies) kunoma iziphi izithako.

Ungayithatha i-insulin ngenkathi ukhulelwe noma uncelisa?

  • Yize ingekho i-insulin evunyelwe ngokusemthethweni yi-FDA ukuthi isetshenziswe ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, ngokuvamile kubhekwa njengokuvikelekile nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwabesifazane abakhulelwe;i-insulin umuthi wendabuko ongakhetha kuqala ekwelapheni isifo sikashukela sokukhulelwa.
  • I-insulin ingasetshenziswa ngenkathi uncelisa.

Ingabe ama-insulins alawulwa yizinto?

  • Ama-insulins awazona izinto ezilawulwayo.

Imiphumela emibi ejwayelekile ye-insulin

  • Esikhathini sakamuva ucwaningo , I-SingleCare ithole ukuthi imiphumela emibi yamathumbu, ukungafuni ukudla, nomchamo omnyama kwakuyimiphumela emibi kakhulu ebikiwe ye-insulin.
  • Ukuphendula kwesayithi lokujova (ububomvu, ukuvuvukala, noma ukulunywa)
  • Injection site lipodystrophy (ukuqina kwesikhumba noma imigodi esizeni)
  • I-Myalgia (ubuhlungu bemisipha)
  • Pruritus (ukulunywa)
  • I-Rash
  • Ukutheleleka okuphezulu okuphefumula
  • Ukuzuza kwesisindo
  • Ubuhlungu bekhanda
  • I-peripheral edema (ukuvuvukala kwemilenze ephansi noma izandla)
  • Ukusabela kwe-Hypersensitivity (ukusabela okweqile)
  • Izimpawu ezinjengomkhuhlane

Ukusabela okunamandla (kungadinga ukufuna usizo lwezokwelapha)

  • I-Hypoglycemia (ushukela ophansi wegazi)
  • I-Hypokalemia (amazinga aphansi e-potassium egazi)
  • Ukusabela kwe-Hypersensitivity (ukusabela okweqile)
  • I-Anaphylaxis (ukusabela okweqile okunesifo esidinga usizo lwezokwelapha ngokushesha)

Kubiza malini ama-insulins?

I- izindleko ze-insulin zingahluka kakhulu ngokususelwa ohlotsheni olusetshenzisiwe (isb. i-insulin yomuntu ngokuvamile ayibizi kakhulu kunezi-insulin ezifana ne-Humalog noma i-Lantus), futhi indlela yokulethwa (isb., izitsha ngokuvamile zibiza kancane kunenani elifanayo le-insulin ezibayeni ze-insulin ezifakiwe. Izindleko ze-insulini nazo zingahluka ngokuya ngohlobo lomshuwalense, ngoba izinhlelo eziningi zisebenzisa amafomula angahle athengise imikhiqizo efanayo ye-insulin ngokuhlukile kuya ngomhlinzeki omthandayo (isb., IHumulin N ingabiza amanani aphezulu kunoNovolin N uma uNovo Nordisk kungumphakeli okhethwayo) . Kubantu abangenawo umshuwalense wezempilo, i-insulin ingabiza noma yikuphi kusuka ku- $ 25 kuye ku- $ 300 nge-vial ngayinye. Iziguli ezingaphansi komshwalense noma ezingakaqinisekisiwe zingasebenzisa amakhuphoni amahhala e-SingleCare ukonga imali kwi-insulin futhi ezinye izidingo zikashukela .