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Yini ebangela i-potassium ephansi?

Yini ebangela i-potassium ephansi?Imfundo Yezempilo

Ngokungangabazeki uzwile ukuthi i-apula ngosuku ligcina udokotela engekho. Kepha kuthiwani ngobhanana ngosuku? Umzimba wakho udinga i-potassium ukuze usebenze. Ngenye yezimbiwa ezibalulekile empilweni . Kuyasiza ukulawula ibhalansi yoketshezi lomzimba wakho, kugcina uhlelo lomzimba wakho lwe-electrolyte, kunciphisa umfutho wegazi, futhi kwehlisa ingozi yokushaywa unhlangothi.

Kodwa-ke, uma kukhulunywa nge-potassium, izindaba zebhalansi.



I-potassium eningi kakhulu, ebizwa nge-hyperkalemia, ingadala ubuthakathaka, ukukhathala, ukulahleka kokusebenza kwemisipha, kanye nokushaya kwenhliziyo okuphuzile. I-potassium encane kakhulu, ebizwa ngokuthi i-hypokalemia, ingadala ubuthakathaka bemisipha, ukudumba kwemisipha, ukushaya kwenhliziyo, nokuqaqamba — kungadala nokukhubazeka nokuhluleka ukuphefumula.



Izinga eliphansi le-potassium lingadala izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo , njenge-high blood pressure namatshe ezinso, yingakho kusiza ukwazi ukuthi ungazibona kanjani izimpawu ze-potassium ephansi nokuthi yini engase ikubangele. Ngenhlanhla, uvame ukukhuphula amazinga e-potassium uwedwa ngokudla futhi ukwengeza . Nakhu okudingeka ukwazi.

Yini ebhekwa njenge-potassium ephansi?

Amazinga aphansi e-potassium amazinga egazi e-potassium angaphansi kuka-3.5 mEq / L; ngaphansi kuka-2.5 mEq / L kungasongela impilo. Amazinga ajwayelekile e-potassium, kubantu abaningi, aphakathi kuka-3.5 no-5.0 mEq ilitha ngalinye (mEq / L), ngokusho Ukuvuselelwa kwemitholampilo ka-2018 . Noma yini engaphezulu kuka-5.0 mEq / L ithathwa njengephakeme, futhi amazinga angaphezu kuka-6.0 angaba yingozi futhi angahle adinge usizo lwezempilo ngokushesha.



Qaphela: I-Hypokalemia ayijwayelekile kubantu abasebenza izinso okujwayelekile.

Abantu abaningi abayi kudokotela ngezinga eliphansi le-potassium noma ngoba bacabanga ukuthi bangama-hypokalemic. Imvamisa kutholakala lapho wenza umsebenzi wegazi ngenxa yokuthi unezimpawu zokunye ukugula, okufana nesifo se-adrenal, noma lapho kwenziwa umsebenzi welebhu ojwayelekile, okuvame ukudingeka uma uthatha umchamo.

Yiziphi ezinye zezimpawu ze-potassium ephansi?

Abantu abaningi abazitholi izimpawu ze-hypokalemia ize ibe nzima, futhi inani le-potassium lehle ngaphansi kuka-3.0 mEq / L.



Abantu abanokushoda okuphakathi kwe-potassium bangathola:

  • Ukuqunjelwa
  • Ubuthakathaka bemisipha
  • Ukukhathala
  • Umuzwa ojwayelekile we-malaise

Izimpawu zokushoda kakhulu kwe-potassium zifaka:

  • Imisipha iyashwiba
  • Amajaqamba emisipha
  • Ubuthakathaka bemisipha
  • Ukukhubazeka
  • Isigqi senhliziyo esingajwayelekile noma ukushaya kwenhliziyo
  • Izinkinga zezinso
  • Ukuphelelwa isifiso sokudla, isicanucanu nokuhlanza
  • Ukuqunjelwa nokuqunjelwa
  • Ukukhathala
  • Ukulimala noma ukuba ndikindiki
  • Umfutho wegazi ophakeme
  • Ukuquleka

Itholakala kanjani i-hypokalemia?

I-potassium ephansi akusona isifo uqobo lwayo, kepha kunalokho iyisifo sesimo esingaphansi noma isifo. Lapho kutholakala i-potassium ephansi, udokotela wakho angase asikisele ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe ukuthola imbangela. Ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe kwegazi kungahlola i-glucose, i-magnesium, i-calcium, i-sodium, i-phosphorus, ama-hormone e-thyroid, ne-aldosterone. Udokotela wakho angaphinde a-ode i i-electrocardiogram (EKG) ukuhlola umsebenzi kagesi enhliziyweni yakho.



yini engathathwa ngabesifazane abakhulelwe isicanucanu

Kunezinhloso ezine eziyinhloko lapho welapha amazinga aphansi e-potassium:

  • Ukunciphisa ukulahleka kwe-potassium
  • Ukugcwaliswa kabusha kwe-potassium
  • Ukuhlolwa kobungozi obungaba khona
  • Ukunqunywa kwesizathu, ukuvimbela iziqephu ezizayo

Kubalulekile futhi ukwelapha izimo zezokwelapha eziyisisekelo noma ukuqeda imbangela. Isibonelo, uma ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kwama-laxatives kubangela i-hypokalemia, ukubhekana nezidingo zomzimba noma ezingokwengqondo zama-laxatives kufanele kube yingxenye yohlelo lokwelashwa. Uma isiguli sidinga ukukhishwa isisu, udokotela waso angaxoxa ngokufakwa esikhundleni okuvumela i-potassium ukuthi ihlale emzimbeni (i-potassium-sparing diuretic) noma inikeze izithasiselo zansuku zonke ze-potassium.

Kubantu abane-potassium ephansi ngokweqile, udokotela angancoma ukwelashwa ngemithambo.



Yini ebangela i-potassium ephansi?

Ngenkathi i-potassium iyisakhi somzimba esisithola ekudleni, ukudla kukodwa akuvamile ukudala i-hypokalemia. Kunezimbangela eziningi ezingaba khona ze-hypokalemia kanye nabantu abathile abanengozi eyengeziwe yokushoda. Lokhu kufaka phakathi:

  • Ukuhlanza njalo noma isifo sohudo (kufaka phakathi i-bulimia noma ukuhlukunyezwa kwe-laxative)
  • Ukujuluka okweqile
  • Ukuphuza kakhulu utshwala
  • Ukudla okunomsoco nokunye ukuntuleka kokudla okunempilo , njengokushoda kwe-magnesium noma i-folic acid
  • Izinkinga ze-adrenal, ezifana nesifo sikaCushing
  • Isifo sezinso esingalapheki
  • Ukuphazamiseka okungajwayelekile, njenge-Liddle syndrome, i-Bartter's syndrome, i-Gitelman syndrome
  • Umdlavuza wegazi
  • Isifo samathumbu esivuthayo
  • Abantu abane-pica (ikakhulukazi uma bedla ubumba, njengoba ubumba lubopha i-potassium emgodini wamathumbu futhi lungadala ukukhuphuka kwe-potassium)
  • Abantu abathatha imishanguzo ethile, njenge-diuretics

I-hypokalemia eyenziwe ngemithi

Imithi ethile kungadala namazinga aphansi e-potassium, kufaka phakathi:

  • Izidakamizwa: Cishe i-80% yabantu abathatha isisu banesifo se-potassium ngenxa yokwanda kokuchama. Izidakamizwa, noma amaphilisi amanzi, angabhalwa ezigulini ezine-high blood pressure, ukuhluleka kwenhliziyo, nesifo sezinso. Izidakamizwa isisusa esivame kakhulu se-hypokalemia.
  • Ama-laxatives: Ama-laxatives angadala ukulahleka kwe-potassium esitokisini.
  • Izidakamizwa ze-beta-adrenergic agonist: Ama-bronchodilators, ama-steroids, noma i-theophylline (asetshenziselwa i-asthma, i-emphysema, ne-COPD) angathinta i-serum potassium ne-glucose egazini.
  • Ama-antibiotic athile: Ngemithamo emikhulu, amanye ama-antibiotic angakhuphula ukuphuma kwe-potassium ngezinso.
  • I-insulini: Imithamo emikhulu ye-insulin, engalaphaI-HyperosmolarI-HyperglycemicI-Nonketotic Syndrome(HHNS), isimo esiyingozi esidalwa amazinga aphezulu kashukela egazini,zivame ukulekelelwa nge-potassium efakwa emithanjeni.

Ingabe i-potassium ephansi iyingozi?

IHypokalemia ingafaka isandla, noma ibangele ezinye izingqinamba zezempilo, kufaka phakathi:



  • Umfutho wegazi ophakeme
  • Amatshe ezinso
  • Ukuncipha kwamaminerali amathambo
  • Ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngengozi eyengeziwe yokuthuthukisa uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2
  • Ukukhishwa kwe-calcium yomchamo
  • Ukuzwela kasawoti

Amazinga aphansi kakhulu e-potassium angadala izimo zempilo ezinzima kakhulu, njengezinkinga zesigqi senhliziyo, futhi angadala nenhliziyo yakho ukuthi ime.

OKUSHIWO: Izimpawu ze-13 zezinkinga zenhliziyo okufanele zikhathazeke ngazo

Ungawanyusa kanjani amazinga e-potassium

Ezimweni ezimnene ze-hypokalemia, amazinga e-potassium angajwayelekile phakathi nezinsuku ezimbalwa ngemuva kokuqala ukwanda kokudla kwe-potassium. Ukuqinisekisa ukuthi udla ukudla okwanele nge-potassium nsuku zonke kungasiza ukukhulisa nokugcina amazinga e-potassium anempilo. Ukunconywa kwe-potassium nsuku zonke, ngokusho kwe- Izifundiswa Zikazwelonke Zesayensi, Ubunjiniyela Nezokwelapha (NASEM) yile:

  • Abantu abadala abaphilile: 3,400 mg ngosuku kwabesilisa, 2,600 kwabesifazane (abaneminyaka engu-19 nangaphezulu)
  • Intsha eneminyaka engu-14 kuya kwengu-18 ubudala: 3,000 mg wesilisa, 2,300 mg wesifazane
  • Izingane ezineminyaka engu-9 kuya ku-13: 2,500 mg wesilisa, 2,300 mg wesifazane
  • Izingane ezineminyaka engu-4 kuya ku-8: 2,300 mg wesilisa, 2,300 mg wesifazane
  • Izingane ezineminyaka engu-1 kuya ku-3: 2,000 mg wabesilisa nabesifazane
  • Izingane ezineminyaka engu-7 kuya kwezingu-12 izinyanga: 860 mg wabesilisa nabesifazane
  • Ukuzalwa izinyanga eziyisithupha: 400 mg kwabesilisa nabesifazane

Ukudla okunothe nge-potassium

Ukudla okuyisihlanu okuphezulu kakhulu emazingeni e-potassium yilawa:

Ukudla okunothe nge-potassium Usayizi wokukhonza Inani le-potassium Amaphesenti inani lansuku zonke *
Amabhilikosi omisiwe ½ inkomishi 1,101 mg 32.3% -42.3%
Amalenti aphekiwe 1 inkomishi 731 mg 21.5% -28.1%
Ama-prune omisiwe ½ inkomishi 699 mg 20.5% -26.8%
I-squash acorn squash 1 inkomishi 644 mg 18.9% -24.7%
Omisiwe ½ inkomishi 618 mg 18.1% -23.7%

* Okwabadala

Okunye ukudla okuphezulu kwe-potassium kufaka:

  • Amazambane abhakiwe
  • Ubhontshisi wezinso
  • Amawolintshi / Ijusi lewolintshi
  • Ubhontshisi weSoya
  • Ubhanana
  • Ukotapeya
  • Igatsha
  • Izaqathe
  • Ubisi
  • Ibhitela lamantongomane
  • Uhlobo lwenhlanzi
  • Isipinashi
  • Utamatisi
  • Amagciwane kakolweni

Izithako ze-potassium

Indlela engcono kakhulu yokukhulisa amazinga e-potassium ngokushesha ukuthatha isithasiselo se-potassium, iningi laso elitholakala ngaphandle kwe-counter, uthi ULinda Girgis , MD, udokotela womndeni oqinisekiswe yibhodi emisebenzini yangasese eSouth River, eNew Jersey. Lapho izinga selifinyelele ezingeni elijwayelekile, ungahle ukwazi ukuyeka izithasiselo futhi ugcine amazinga e-potassium ngokudla.

Ukuthatha izithasiselo, noma kunjalo, kungaba yingozi. Izithako ze-potassium zingadala imiphumela emibi emathunjini noma amazinga aphezulu kakhulu we-potassium.

Ukuba namazinga e-potassium aphakeme kakhulu kungaba yingozi njengalapho ephansi kakhulu. Noma yikuphi ukweqisa kungaholela kuma-arrhythmias enhliziyo nakwezinye izinkinga, kusho uDkt. Girgis. Kungcono ukusebenzisana nodokotela wakho lapho uthatha izithasiselo ukuze amazinga akho e-potassium abhekwe ukuqinisekisa ukuthi asendaweni ephephile.

Izengezo ezithengiswa ekhawunteni kungenzeka zinganele uma izinga lakho le-potassium liphansi kakhulu.I-FDA ikhawulela izengezo ezingaphansi kuka-100 mg we-potassium, okuyingxenye nje kuphela yokudla okunconywayo nsuku zonke. Odokotela bangakhipha isengezo esinamandla kakhulu se-potassium kwiziguli ezine-hypokalemia.

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezithako ze-potassium:

  • I-potassium chloride
  • I-potassium citrate
  • I-potassium phosphate
  • I-potassium bicarbonate
  • I-potassium aspartate

Kungaba yinselele ukwazi ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo isengezo esihle kakhulu se-potassium kuwe. I-Potassium chloride isetshenziswa kakhulu kubantu abangenayo i-potassium, ngokusho kukaDkt. Girgis, I-potassium phosphate iyasiza uma isiguli sinayo i-phosphate. Uma isiguli sithanda amatshe ezinso, i-potassium citrate ingahle ibe wusizo ngoba i-citrate inganamathela ku-calcium emchameni, ivimbele ukwakheka kwe-crystal. Uncoma ukuthi ufune iseluleko sezokwelapha ngaphambi kokuthatha noma yiziphi izithasiselo.