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Izibalo ze-Autism 2021

Izibalo ze-Autism 2021Izindaba

Yini i-autism? | Ivamile kangakanani i-autism? | Izibalo ze-Autism ngokweminyaka | Izibalo ze-Autism ngohlanga nobuzwe | Ukukhubazeka kwengqondo | Izimo zezempilo ezenzeka ngokubambisana | Izindleko ezihlobene | I-Epidemiology | Ucwaningo

Izingane ezikuthola kunzima ukubamba ingxoxo, ukubheka iso, noma ukuzwelana nabanye zingahle zingene endaweni ethile kwi-autism spectrum. Bangaba nokuziphatha okuphoqelekile noma ukunyakaza okuphindaphindiwe. Yize bengakhangwa yizinto ezimbalwa, bangaba semuva olimini lwabo noma emakhonweni abo okufunda. I-Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ithinta ingane eyodwa kwezingu-54 e-United States, futhi izimpawu zibukeka zehluke kancane komunye nomuntu. Alikho ikhambi le-autism, futhi yisimo sempilo yonke, kepha i ukuxilongwa kusenesikhathi ingathuthukisa ikhwalithi yempilo yabantu abane-autism kanye nemisebenzi yabo kanye nobudlelwano.



Yini i-autism?

Autism kuyinto ukuphazamiseka kokuthuthuka lokho kuthinta ukuxhumana nokuziphatha. Kukholakala ukuthi kubangelwa izici zemvelo nezofuzo . Labo abane-autism bathola ukuxhumana nabantu kunzima futhi babe nokuziphatha okuphindaphindwayo kanye nezintshisekelo ezigxile. I-Autism nayo iyinkinga ye-spectrum, okusho ukuthi ubunzima nobubanzi bezimpawu buhlukile kumuntu nomuntu.



kufanele ngabe ushukela wegazi ojwayelekile kufanele ube yini ngemuva kokudla

Ngezansi kunezinkomba ezimbalwa ze-autism, ngokusho kweDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V.

  • Akukho ukubhuza noma ukukhomba ngeminyaka engu-1
  • Awekho amagama awodwa anezinyanga eziyi-16 ubudala noma amabinzana amagama amabili ngobudala 2
  • Amandla angakhubazekile okwenza ubungane nontanga
  • Amandla angakhubazekile okuqala noma wokugcina ingxoxo nabanye
  • Ukusetshenziswa kolimi okuphindaphindwayo noma ngokungajwayelekile
  • Inzalo ejulile noma egxile ngokungajwayelekile
  • Ukukhathazeka ngezinto ezithile noma izihloko ezithile
  • Ukunamathela okungaguquguquki kunqubo ethile noma amasiko athile

I-ASD kungacatshangwa ukuthi iyinto ethinta ulimi nemfundiso yengqondo, kusho UMerriam Saunders , LMFT, udokotela wezifo zengqondo ozinze eCalifornia. Kwabanye, umthelela wolimi usho ukuthi abalona izwi noma basebenzise ulimi olulinganiselwe. Lezi yizimo [ezinzima kakhulu]. Umbono womqondo yigugu elihle lekhono lomuntu lokuqonda ukuthi lokho okusekhanda lami akusikho ekhanda lakho, nakho. Kwesinye isikhathi kungenxa yalobu bunzima lapho abantu abane-ASD beba nobunzima bokuqonda [ukuthi] omunye umuntu angahle angafuni ukukhuluma noma ukuzwa isikhathi eside ngento ayithanda kakhulu.



USaunders uphinde achaze ukuthi ezinye izimpawu, njengezinkinga zezinzwa (ubunzima bemisindo, ukunambitha, ukuthinta, ukukhanya), zingahle ziqale kusukela kokubi kuya kokuncane.

Ivamile kangakanani i-autism?

  • Ingane eyodwa kwezingu-160 emhlabeni jikelele ine-autism spectrum disorder. ( Ucwaningo lwe-Autism , 2012)
  • Cishe ingane eyodwa kwezingu-54 zase-U.S. Ine-autism diagnostic. (Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo, i-2020)
  • I-Autism ibisabalele cishe ku-2% wezingane ezineminyaka engu-8 ngo-2016. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)
  • I-Autism yande kakhulu phakathi kwabafana kunamantombazane kusukela ngo-2016 e-U.S. (Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbela Izifo, i-2020)

Izibalo ze-Autism ngokweminyaka

Namuhla, ukuxilongwa kwe-autism kuvame ukwenzeka ebuntwaneni, okungenzeka ukuthi kungani amazinga e-autism ezinganeni ephakeme kunalawo abantu abadala. Kodwa-ke, ngoba incazelo ye-autism spectrum disorder inkulu kakhulu savela , intsha eningi kanye nabantu abadala kungenzeka ukuthi baphila ne-ASD engatholakali.

  • Kulezo zingane ezine-autism, ama-44% ahlolwe eneminyaka eyi-3 (Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo, 2020)
  • Izingane ezinesifo somtholampilo se-autism zineminyaka yobudala ephakathi yokutholakala kweminyaka engu-4 nezinyanga ezintathu. (Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo, i-2020)
  • Ukulinganiselwa okuvamile kwe-autism kubantu abadala abazalwe phakathi kuka-1980 no-2012 kulindeleke ukuthi kudlule i-2.8% ngenxa yenqubo entsha yokuxilonga. Lokho cishe kungabantu abathathu kwabayikhulu e-U.S. Esikhathini esizayo abangaphatha ukuxilongwa okususelwa kule nqubo entsha. (Vula Izingqondo, 2018)

Izibalo ze-Autism ngohlanga nobuzwe

Amaqembu amancane atholakala ene-autism kamuva futhi kaningi.



  • Ukuxilongwa kwe-autism spectrum disorder kuphezulu kakhulu ezinganeni ezimhlophe ezingezona ezeSpanishi (18.5 nge-1,000).
  • Izibalo ze-Autism ziphansi kakhulu ezinganeni zaseSpanishi (15.4 nge-1,000).
  • Izinga lokusabalala kwe-Autism ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-8 lenyuke ngo-10% phakathi kowezi-2014 nowe-2016, futhi lenyuke ngo-175% phakathi kuka-2000 no-2016.

(Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo, i-2020)

Ukusebenza kwengqondo phakathi kwezingane ezine-autism

I-Autism akuyona ukukhubazeka kokufunda, kepha ingathinta ukusebenza kwengqondo. Ezinye izingane ezikwisimo se-autism zinokubambezeleka ekukhulumeni noma ekufundeni, kanti ezinye azikwenzi. Ngoba kuyinkinga ye-spectrum, lokhu kubambezeleka kungahle kusuka kokuncane kuya kokubi.

siyini isibonelo se-ace inhibitor?
  • Ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu zezingane ezine-autism zahlukaniswa njengezikhubazekile ngokwengqondo (IQ elingana noma engaphansi kuka-70).
  • Amantombazane angama-7% ngaphezu kwabafana atholwa ukuthi anokukhubazeka kwengqondo nge-autism (39% uma kuqhathaniswa nama-32%).
  • Amaphesenti angama-24 ezingane ezine-autism abene-IQ ebangeni lomngcele (IQ 71-85).
  • Abamnyama (47%) nezingane zaseSpanishi (36%) babenamathuba amaningi kunezingane ezimhlophe (27%) zokukhubazeka ngokomqondo nge-autism.

(Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo, i-2020)



I-Autism nezimo ezenzeka ngokubambisana

Alikho ikhambi noma umuthi we-autism spectrum disorder. Ukwelashwa kokuziphatha ukwelashwa kwe-autism okuphumelela kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, iningi lezingane (95%) zezingane ezine-autism okungenani zinesimo esisodwa esenzeka ngokubambisana, esivame ukwelashwa.

  • Abangaphezu kwengxenye (53%) bane-autism nokunaka kokushoda kokungasebenzi kahle.
  • Abangaphezu kwesigamu (51%) bane-autism nokukhathazeka.
  • Ikota (25%) ine-autism nokudangala.
  • Okungenani izingane ezingama-60% ezine-autism zizoba nezimo ezimbili ze-comorbid (isb., Izinkinga zokulala, ukuquleka, ukukhubazeka kwengqondo, noma izinkinga zamathumbu).

(Vula Izingqondo, 2018)



OKUSHIWO: Ingabe ingane yakho ihlonza kabi i-autism?

Izindleko ze-autism

Ukunakekelwa, ukwelashwa, kanye nokulamula kwezimo ezenzeka ngokubambisana kuthola izindleko eziphezulu kwabaseMelika abane-autism.



  • I-Autism ibiza u- $ 60,000 ngonyaka ngokwesilinganiso ebuntwaneni ngenxa yezinsizakalo zemfundo ekhethekile, izindleko zokunakekelwa kwempilo, kanye nemali elahlekile yabazali.
  • Izindleko ziyanda kubantu abane-autism nokukhubazeka kwengqondo.
  • Umama uvame ukuba umnakekeli oyinhloko wengane ene-autism. Ngokwesilinganiso, omama bezingane abane-ASD bathola ngaphansi kuka-35% komama bezingane abanezinye izimo zezempilo kanye nama-56% angaphansi komama bezingane ezingenakho ukukhubazeka noma ukuphazamiseka.
  • Izindleko zokunakekela abantu abane-autism zibikezelwa ukuthi zizofinyelela ku- $ 461 billion ngo-2025 e-U.S.

(I-Autism Iyakhuluma, 2018)

yini i-paxil yezidakamizwa esetshenziswayo ukwelapha

OKUSHIWO: Ukuphathwa kwemithi yabantu abakhubazekile



Ingabe i-autism ingumqedazwe?

Ngaphambi kokuxoxa ngokuthi lezi zinombolo ziphakamisa ubhadane, kuyadingeka ukuqonda ngani izibalo ze-autism zikhuphukile. Umqedazwe uyisiphika esilinganisweni samacala amasha. Kodwa-ke, akucaci noma ukubhebhetheka kwe-autism kukhuphuke ngempela noma ngabe kungokwanda nje kokuxilongwa.

UChris Abildgaard , LPC, umbhali we Ukukhulisa i-Autism UMagazini uchaza ukuthi kunokwanda kwamacala akhonjisiwe e-autism ngenxa, yokwandisa incazelo kusuka ku-autism kuya ku-autism spectrum disorder (ASD); ukwandisa ulwazi lokuphazamiseka ngabasebenzi, okuholela ekwandeni kokuxilongwa okungcono nokwedlule; ukungaguquguquki okwengeziwe kwe-CDC's Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring (ADDM) Network ngendlela esetshenzisiwe ukukhomba amacala; (kanye) nokwenyuka kwangempela kwezinga lezingane ezizalwa zinenkinga.

Ucwaningo lwe-Autism