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Ungawuthola umkhuhlane kusuka emkhuhlaneni?

Ungawuthola umkhuhlane kusuka emkhuhlaneni?Imfundo Yezempilo

Njengoba izinsuku zasehlobo ezifudumele ziqala ukufiphala futhi nomoya uqala ukukhazimula, izinganekwane ukuzungeza umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane kuqala ukusakazeka-kubonakala sengathi kuyathathelwana njengegciwane lomkhuhlane uqobo. Izinto ezivame kakhulu esizizwayo zihlobene nokukhathazeka kokuthola umkhuhlane kusuka ekudutshulweni komkhuhlane kanti iziguli zisitshela ukuthi ziphilile kakhulu futhi aziwutholi umkhuhlane, kusho U-Inessa Gendlina , MD, Ph.D., umsizi kaprofesa wezifo ezithathelwanayo eMontefiore Health System.

Ezinye izinganekwane zibandakanya ukungadingi ukugonywa minyaka yonke ukugcina ukugoma, umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane awusebenzi kahle, nomkhuhlane ungabi yingozi kakhulu. Ngayo yonke le mibono eyiphutha ezungezayo, ngaphansi kwengxenye yabantu abadala e-United States bagonywa minyaka yonke, noma ngabe abantu baseMelika abalinganiselwa kuma-337,157 washona kusuka kumkhuhlane phakathi kuka-2010 no-2019.



Yize kujwayelekile ukuhlangabezana nemiphumela engemihle ethambile yokugomela umkhuhlane, ukusabela okubucayi akuvamile, futhi ukuthola umkhuhlane emthonjeni wokugoma akunakwenzeka. Nakhu ukuthi wazi kanjani ukuthi yini ongayilindela.

Imikhuhlane emibi

Imiphumela emibi yomkhuhlane ngokuvamile iwela ezigabeni ezimbili: ukusabela kwesayithi nokuphendula okuhlelekile.

Ukuphendula kwesayithi izimpendulo zasendaweni ezungeze indawo yokujova engafaka ukuvuvukala, ukukhathazeka, ukungaphatheki kahle, noma ubuhlungu. Lolu hlobo lokuphendula lungumphumela omubi kakhulu wokudutshulwa ngumkhuhlane.



Ukusabela okuhlelekile kujwayele ukuthi kungani abantu becabanga ukuthi bayagula ngenxa yomkhuhlane, noma kungenjalo. Imithi yokugoma ilungiselela futhi ‘ifundise’ amasosha omzimba ukuze akwazi ukulwa negciwane lomkhuhlane lalo nyaka, futhi izimpawu ezincanyana ziwuphawu lokuthi amasosha omzimba ayafunda futhi ayasabela ekugomeni, kusho uDkt Gendlina.

Abanye abantu baba nezimpawu ezifana nomkhuhlane ezinjenge-fever-low fever, ukukhathala, izinhlungu zemisipha, ukuminyana kwamakhala, ikhala eligijimayo, ukukhwehlela komphimbo obuhlungu nokuzizwa kwehla njalo. Lokhu kusabela kujwayelekile futhi kulindelekile, ngokusho kukaDkt. Gendlina. Ngenkathi umkhuhlane uzidubula ngokwawo uhluka unyaka nonyaka, imiphumela emibi ejwayelekile ihlala ifana, mhlawumbe ngezimpawu ezithile ezifana nokuqaqamba komzimba kuphakama kakhulu onyakeni owodwa uma kuqhathaniswa nomunye. Kwesinye isikhathi, ukuquleka kubikwa kulandela ukuqhuma komkhuhlane, ngezinga elihambisana neminye imigomo. (Kungakho kungcono ukwenza Hlala phansi ngenkathi uthola umuthi wakho wokugoma futhi ubhekwe imizuzu eyi-15 ngemuva kwalokho.)

i-vagisil anti itch cream yokutheleleka kwemvubelo

Ekugcineni, kungenzeka ukuthi abanye abantu babhekane nemiphumela emibi yokugoma ngenxa ye- umphumela we-nocebo , okwenzeka lapho isehlakalo esingesihle senzeka njengalokho obekulindelwe okungekuhle maqondana nokwelashwa noma umuthi. Ucwaningo lukhombisile ukuthi ukutshelwa ukuthi ungathola umthelela oseceleni kungadala ukuthi uzwe lowo mphumela, noma ngabe unikezwa ukwelashwa kwe-placebo.

OKUSHIWO: Ngabe ukuphuza utshwala ngemuva kokugonywa kulungile?

Ukusabela komkhuhlane

Izinkinga ezinkulu kulandela umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane yilezi akuvamile kakhulu kanti umuthi wokugoma unerekhodi elihle lokuphepha, ngokusho kweCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), eqapha ukuphepha komuthi kanye ne-FDA. Ukulandela nokuqapha yonke imicimbi ephathelene nokugoma, i-CDC ne-FDA zisebenzisa i-Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System ( Ama-VAERS ).

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela umehluko phakathi kwezimpawu ezimnene ezihlobene nokugomela umkhuhlane (okuphawulwe ngenhla) kanye ne-real allergic reaction, kusho uDkt. Gendlina. Ngenkathi kuyivelakancane, ukusabela okweqile kuvame ukwenzeka ngemuva nje kokulawulwa kokugoma — kungakapheli nemizuzu namahora.

Ukuphefumula kanye nokuvuvukala komphimbo yizona zinto ezikhathazeka kakhulu uma kuziwa ekuphenduleni okugonyelwe umkhuhlane. Ukusabela okunzima kakhulu nokusongela impilo, i-anaphylaxis, kwenzeka ngaphansi kokugoma okungaphansi kuka-1%, kusho URandell Wexler, MD , udokotela wemithi yomndeni e-Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Ngokuya ngobungozi besiguli nohlobo lomuthi wokugoma, abanye abahlinzeki bezokunakekelwa kwempilo bazocela iziguli ukuthi zihlale ehhovisi imizuzu eyi-15 ngemuva kokuphathwa ukuze ziqiniseke ukuthi azikutholi ukusabela, kuyilapho abanye abahlinzeki bedinga zonke iziguli ukuthi zilinde imizuzu engu-15. Kwabanye abantu, kuthatha ukuvezwa okuphindaphindiwe ngaphambi kokuba baphendule. Kwabanye, ukusabela kungaba kubi ngokuqhubekayo njalo lapho bechayeka, kuphawula uDkt. Wexler.

Ngaphezu kwezingxenye zomuthi wokugoma wangempela, kunezinye izithako ezingatholwa kumafomula ahlukahlukene wokugoma, okungaba ukuzinzisa nokugcina umuthi wokugoma uphephile, noma okusele ekukhiqizweni komuthi wokugoma. Okunye ukwenziwa kwemithi yokugomela umkhuhlane kufaka amanani amancane ezinye izinto ezinjenge-thimerosal preservative, amanani amancane ama-antibiotic asalayo okusiza ukuvimbela ukungcoliswa, i-latex yemvelo noma injoloba njengengxenye yokupakisha umuthi wokugoma, amaprotheni amaqanda asuka kumasiko amaseli avela ekukhiqizweni komuthi wokugoma, noma ukulandelela amanani i-formaldehyde evela enqubeni yokukhiqiza, kusho uDkt. Gendlina. Ngalesi sizathu, abantu abaphikisana nezithako ezithile kufanele baxoxe ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene zokugomela umkhuhlane nodokotela babo.

Izimpawu zokuphendula okunzima zifaka ukuphefumula kanzima, isifuba, ubuthakathaka, isiyezi, isifuba nokuvuvukala ngamehlo noma ezindebeni. Uma lokhu kwenzeka kulandela umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane, funa ukwelashwa okuphuthumayo. Ukusabela kufanele futhi kubikwe kuma-VARES ukuze i-CDC ne-FDA iqhubeke nokulandela ukusabela nokukhomba noma yikuphi ukuthambekela.

Ungawuthola umkhuhlane kusuka emkhuhlaneni?

Ngenkathi izimpawu ezimnene ezifana nomkhuhlane osezingeni eliphansi, ikhanda elibuhlungu, nezinhlungu zemisipha zivamile kulandela ukugoma, lokhu empeleni akufani nokugula noma ukuthola umkhuhlane. Umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane awunalo igciwane lomkhuhlane elisebenzayo, futhi ukudonswa umkhuhlane ngomjovo akuqukethe noma yiliphi igciwane elibukhoma, kusho uDkt Gendlina.

Esikhundleni salokho, okwenzekayo lapho uhlangabezana nalezi zimpawu umzimba ufaka impendulo yamasosha omzimba emuthini wokugomela umkhuhlane njengoba ifunda ukulwa negciwane langempela. Lapho othile eba nezimpawu ezingezinhle ngemuva kokudutshulwa umkhuhlane, kukhombisa ukuthi amasosha omzimba ayasabela emuthini wokugoma. Njengoba nje ingeke ikunikeze umkhuhlane, futhi ayikugulisi. Umuthi wokugoma uzokhipha amasosha omzimba angakwenza uzizwe uphelelwa amandla, kepha akuwona umkhuhlane futhi akukho lapho kusondele khona njengomkhuhlane, uDkt Wexler uyacacisa.

Kubalulekile futhi ukuthi wazi ukuthi usengawuthola umkhuhlane noma ngabe uyagonywa, nokuthi lobu akusibo ubudlelwano bezimbangela nomphumela. Imithi yokugoma isuselwa esibikezelweni sokuthi yiziphi izinhlobo zegciwane lomkhuhlane okulindeleke ukuthi zisakazeke kulo nyaka, futhi uma lokho kubikezela kunganembi ngokuphelele, umuthi wokugoma ungavikela kancane kunokulindelekile, kusho UGendlina.Uma ugonyiwe, amasosha omzimba asazosebenza ukusiza ukulwa nokutheleleka uma uthola umkhuhlane, okungenzeka kuholele enkingeni emnene yokugula komkhuhlane kunokuba ubungagonywanga.

Ubani okufanele weqe umkhuhlane?

Ngenkathi umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane unconywa kakhulu kunoma ngubani oneminyaka yobudala eyisithupha noma ngaphezulu, kunabantu abambalwa okufanele babhekwe ngokukhethekile, kusho UDkt Wexler.Kukhona nabantu abathile abangahle balufanele kangcono uhlobo olulodwa lomuthi wokugoma ngaphezu kolunye, ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukufuna izeluleko zezokwelapha mayelana nenketho engcono kakhulu kuwe. Ukucatshangelwa okuvame kakhulu yile:

  • Ubudala: Izingane ezingaphansi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha ubudala akufanele zithole umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane. (Lapho umama egonywa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, kusiza ukuvikela ingane ezinyangeni ezimbalwa zokuqala. Ubisi lwebele lukamama lungasiza futhi ekuvikeleni umntwana emkhuhlaneni ngoba uqukethe amasosha omzimba.) Ngaphezu kwalokho, labo abangaphansi kweminyaka engu-18 akufanele bathole i umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane ohlanganisayo , kanye ne- imithi yokugoma engasebenzi kanye nedosi ephezulu engasebenzi zivunyelwa kuphela abantu abadala asebekhulile abaneminyaka engama-65 noma ngaphezulu.
  • Ukungezwani kwamaqanda okunzima: Imithi eminingi yokugomela umkhuhlane yenziwa ngamasiko asekelwe emaqanda futhi ingaqukatha amaprotheni amaqanda asalayo, kusho uDkt. Gendlina. Labo abakwazi ukudla amaqanda noma amaqanda aphekwe kancane ezintweni ezibhakiwe cishe ngeke babe nokusabela emkhuhlaneni. Abantu abanezimpawu ezinzima ze-anaphylactic kumaqanda kufanele bathole umuthi wabo wokugomela umkhuhlane endaweni yezokwelapha egadiwe noma bakhulume nodokotela wabo maqondana nokwakhiwa kwamaqanda komuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane onjengeqanda I-Flublok .
  • Ezinye izifo: Labo abanezifo ezisongela impilo noma yisiphi isithako somuthi wokugoma njenge-gelatin, ama-antibiotic, noma ezinye izithako kufanele bagweme umkhuhlane.
  • Izimpawu zomkhuhlane: Iziguli ezibhekene nezimpawu zomkhuhlane noma ezizizwa zigula kufanele zixoxe ngezimpawu nomhlinzeki wazo wezokunakekelwa kwempilo.
  • Isifo se-Guillain-Barré: Labo abake baba nakho ngaphambilini Isifo se-Guillain-Barré (I-GBS) kufanele ixoxe ngokuthi kufanele bayithole yini umkhuhlane nodokotela wabo noma cha.
  • Ukusabela kwangaphambilini: Abantu ababenenkinga yokungezwani komzimba nomkhuhlane owadutshulwa esikhathini esidlule kungenzeka bagweme imishanguzo yomkhuhlane yesikhathi esizayo.

Umuthi wokugoma ngamakhala uphethe imikhawulo ehlukile ukuthi ngubani ongafanele athole le nguqulo yomuthi wokugoma. Uma uhlangabezana nanoma yisiphi salezi zimo ezingezansi zezempilo noma uwela kunoma iyiphi yalezi zigaba, khuluma nodokotela wakho mayelana nokwamukela uhlobo oluhlukile lomuthi wokugoma:

ulisusa kanjani igciwane lesifo semvubelo
  • Izingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka engu-2
  • Abantu abadala abadala kunama-50
  • Izingane ezincane ezine-asthma noma umlando wokuphefumula
  • Izingane ezineminyaka emibili kuya kwengu-17 ezithatha imithi equkethe ama-aspirin noma ama-salicylates
  • Abesifazane abakhulelwe
  • Abantu abangenakunyakaziswa komzimba noma abahlala noma abanakekela umuntu ongenakuyekethisa

Okubalulekile

Umkhuhlane ukugula okungathi sína okungaholela ekungenweni yisinus, inyumoniya, ukulaliswa esibhedlela, noma ngisho nokufa, kepha umuthi wokugoma unganciphisa ubungozi bokugula kuze kufike 60% . Njengalokhu, i-CDC incoma abantu abaningi abaneminyaka engaphezu kwezinyanga eziyisithupha-kufaka phakathi nabesifazane abakhulelwe - ukuthi babanjwe umkhuhlane. Kuthatha cishe amasonto amabili ukuthi umzimba wakhe amasosha omzimba emkhuhlane wonyaka, ngakho-ke cabanga ukuthola isibhamu sakho ngokushesha kunangesikhathi esizayo, njengoba umzimba usengcupheni yokugula ngenkathi usakha amasosha omzimba.

Ngokwengeziwe, ngenkathi umkhuhlane ungavikeli i-COVID-19, ukuba khona komqedazwe kwenza ukuthola umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane kubaluleke kakhulu ngezizathu ezimbalwa. Umkhuhlane onenkontileka ungadala ukuthi iziguli zingakwazi ukulwa necala le-COVID-19, futhi ukuthola izinkontileka zombili ngasikhathi sinye kungaba yingozi kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izibhedlela esevele zibhekene namacala we-coronavirus zingahle zikhungathekiswe yisizini yomkhuhlane omncane.

Uma unemibuzo maqondana nomkhuhlane, khuluma nomhlinzeki wakho wezokunakekelwa kwempilo noma usokhemisi.