Main >> Imfundo Yezempilo >> Umkhuhlane udubule 101: Konke odinga ukukwazi ngokuthola umgomo

Umkhuhlane udubule 101: Konke odinga ukukwazi ngokuthola umgomo

Umkhuhlane udubule 101: Konke odinga ukukwazi ngokuthola umgomoImfundo Yezempilo

Umkhuhlane udubule umuthi wokugomela we-nasal spray | Ubani oyidingayo | Udutshulwa nini umkhuhlane | Ungawutholaphi umkhuhlane | Izindleko | Ukuphepha komuthi wokugoma | Ukusebenza

Ubusika buyeza, kanjalo nenkathi yomkhuhlane owesabekayo. Ngenhlanhla, kukhona umuthi wokugoma lowo-ongakusiza wena, umndeni wakho, kanye nabantu abasengozini noma abasengozini enkulu emphakathini ukugwema igciwane lomkhuhlane kanye nezinkinga ezinkulu ezingase zihambisane nalo. Futhi kulo nyaka kubaluleke kakhulu kunakuqala.



Mhlawumbe uthola umkhuhlane wakho minyaka yonke. Noma mhlawumbe okokuqala ngqa ukucubungula okukodwa futhi uyazibuza ukuthi kuphephile yini, kuyasebenza, futhi kuyadingeka. Kunoma ikuphi, kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuthi yini umkhuhlane odubulile kanye nemiphumela yokweqa umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wonyaka. Simeme ochwepheshe ukuthi baphendule imibuzo eyisishiyagalombili yemikhuhlane ejwayelekile.

1. Uyini umkhuhlane?

Umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane umuthi wokugoma owenziwa kanye ngonyaka ohlinzeka ngokuvikelwa kunoma imuphi umkhuhlane onegciwane ochwepheshe ababikezela ukuthi uzosakazwa ngonyaka onikeziwe.

Umkhuhlane [umuthi wokugoma] uyisivikelo sethu esingcono kakhulu egciwaneni lomkhuhlane, kusho U-Ian Nelligan, MD , udokotela wokunakekelwa okuyisisekelo eStanford Hospital naseMtholampilo ePalo Alto, eCalifornia. Ngaphandle kwenhlanzeko yezandla nokuqapha ukuxhumana, kuyindlela engcono ngempela yokuzivikela ezifweni.



Uma u yenza ukubamba igciwane, izimpawu zomkhuhlane kufaka phakathi umkhuhlane, ukubanda, ukuqaqamba komzimba, ukukhwehlela, nomphimbo obuhlungu (ukusho ezimbalwa). Izinkinga ezinkulu zingaqala kusuka ku-bronchitis ne-pneumonia kuya ku-encephalitis (ukuvuvukala kobuchopho), i-sepsis (impendulo esongela impilo ekuthelelekeni), nokwehluleka kwezitho eziningi.

Lezi zingcuphe yingakho kubalulekile ukuthola umjovo ... noma isifutho samakhala. Umuthi wokugoma utholakala ngazo zombili izinhlobo.

Isibhamu

Ukudutshulwa komkhuhlane kuvame ukuphathwa nge-injection emisipha ye-deltoid yehlombe. Yize kunemibono eyiphutha ejwayelekile, isibhamu asiqukethe igciwane lomkhuhlane bukhoma, kuchaza UShital Patel, MD , uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo nomphenyi esikhungweni sokucwaninga ngemithi yokugoma yeBaylor College of Medicine eHouston, eTexas. Esikhundleni salokho, iqukethe amaprotheni egciwane ashukumisela impendulo yomzimba emzimbeni.



Ngenxa yokuthi izinhlobo zamagciwane omkhuhlane zishintsha kancane unyaka nonyaka, umkhuhlane ushintsha unyaka nonyaka futhi, kuchaza uDkt. Patel. Uthi I-World Health Organization (WHO), i- Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa (FDA), namanye amaqembu amaningi ocwaningo ahlala ehlola zonke izinhlobo ezijikelezayo zamagciwane omkhuhlane ukuze aqiniseke ukuthi athuthukisa umdlalo osondele kakhulu kunoma iyiphi inkathi yomkhuhlane.

Eminye imithi yokugomela umkhuhlane, uthi iyadonsa, okusho ukuthi inikela ukuvikeleka ezinhlotsheni ezintathu zomkhuhlane. Ezinye zine-quadrivalent, okusho ukuthi zinikela ngokuvikelwa ezifweni ezine zomkhuhlane. Ukuthi uthola umuthi wokugoma ophindwe kathathu noma olinganiselayo kuncike kakhulu lapho ukhetha khona ukugoma umkhuhlane wakho, kusho uDkt. Patel. Ngamanye amagama, eminye imitholampilo kanye namakhemisi athatha imijovo yokugoma eyeqile; abanye baphatha i-quadrivalent.

UDkt. Patel ukhuthaza abantu ukuthi bathole umtholampilo noma ikhemisi elihlinzeka ngemithi yokugomela umkhuhlane i-quadrivalent uma kulula ukwenza lokho, ngoba inikeza ithuba elingcono kakhulu lokuzivikela.



Kubantu abangama-65 +, uDkt. Patel uncoma i- umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane omkhulu . Yize kuyinto ethandekayo, umuthi wokugoma ophakeme uqukethe izikhathi ezine amaprotheni wegciwane asezingeni elilinganiselwe lomkhuhlane, ahlinzeka ngokuvikelwa okukhulu kubantu abadala (okuthi, ngokususelwa ebudaleni bodwa, babhekane nengozi enkulu yezinkinga ezinkulu ezivela kulo mkhuhlane). Ukudutshulwa komkhuhlane kubaluleke kakhulu kulabo abahlala emakhaya asebekhulile lapho amagciwane angasakazeka khona ngokushesha.

Okwamanje umuthi wokugomela umthamo omkhulu ngu kuphela ilayisensi yokusetshenziswa kubantu abadala asebekhulile abaneminyaka engama-65 nangaphezulu. Wonke umuntu kufanele anamathele emgomeni ojwayelekile womkhuhlane, kusho uDkt. Patel.

ukuvimbela kanjani imvubelo yokutheleleka kuma-antibiotic

Ezinye izibhamu zomkhuhlane ezithandwayo zifaka phakathi I-Flublok , I-Fluarix ,futhi I-FLUAD .



Isifutho sekhala

TO inguquko yesifutho iyatholakala kulabo abafanelekela ukuyithola. Ngoba liyigciwane elincishisiwe elibukhoma — elinguhlobo olubuthakathaka lwegciwane lomkhuhlane — abantu abanezimo ezithile zezokwelapha namasosha omzimba abekiwe (njengabesifazane abakhulelwe, asebekhulile, abantu abelashwa umdlavuza, noma labo abaphila nokufakelwa izitho ezithile zomzimba) akufanele thola umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wamakhala.

Ngaphandle kwalokho, abantu abanempilo abaphakathi kweminyaka engu-2 nengu-49 ubudala bayakufanelekela ukuthola umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wamakhala uma inqobo nje uma abezempilo bevuma.

Ngokungafani nokudutshulwa komkhuhlane, umuthi wokugoma wamakhala nge-quadrivalent ngokuzenzakalela.



2. Ngabe ngidinga umkhuhlane?

UDkt Nelligan, obona iziguli zeminyaka yonke emtholampilo wakhe, uthi kubalulekile wonke umuntu ngaphezulu kwezinyanga eziyisithupha ubudala ukugonywa. Izingane ezingaphansi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha azikwazi ukugoma ngoba amasosha omzimba abuthakathaka kakhulu ukuba angaphendula umuthi wokugoma.

Ngisho nakubantu abadala abajwayelekile abaphilile, umkhuhlane ungadala ukugula okunzima, esho. Ngakho-ke, yebo, noma ungakaze ube nalo mkhuhlane futhi unempilo enhle, kusadingeka ukuthi ukwenze kuqala ukuthola umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wakho.

Ukudutshulwa ngumkhuhlane kubaluleke kakhulu kwabesifazane abakhulelwe ngoba umkhuhlane ungaba yingozi kubo bobabili umama futhi ingane, kuvuma uDkt. Patel noDkt Nelligan. Umkhuhlane, ngakolunye uhlangothi, uphephe ngokuphelele. Eqinisweni, ukudutshulwa komkhuhlane okutholwe ngesikhathi ukhulelwe kuyaqhubeka nokuvikela ingane ngemuva kokuzalwa.

Ngaphandle kwezingane ezingaphansi kwezinyanga eziyisithupha, ukuphela kwabantu okungafanele bathole umkhuhlane yilabo abebenenkinga yokungezwani nakho esikhathini esedlule, kusho uDkt. Patel. Kodwa-ke, uveza nokuthi ukusabela okunjalo akuvamile kakhulu. Ingozi yokuhlangabezana nezinkinga ezinkulu ezihlobene nomkhuhlane inkulu kakhulu. Esikhathini somkhuhlane we-2019-2020, isibonelo, umkhuhlane wawubhekene nezifo ezingaba yizigidi ezingama-56 nezibhedlela ezingama-740,000 ngokusho kwamaCentre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

3. Kufanele ngithole umkhuhlane nini?

Umkhuhlane awudluli kuze kube maphakathi nobusika, kodwa, ukuze uzuze ngokugcwele umkhuhlane, udinga ukuthola ukugoma kwakho kahle ngaphambi kokuba igciwane lomkhuhlane lisabalale, kusho uDkt. Patel. Isikhathi sincike lapho uhlala khona futhi singahluka unyaka nonyaka, kepha ukuvumelana kusheshe kungakamuva.

Ngokuvamile, inkathi yomkhuhlane iqala ekwindla futhi idlula phakathi nasekuqaleni kwentwasahlobo (hlola i- Ikhasi lokubuyekeza umsebenzi womkhuhlane we-CDC ngolwazi ngemisebenzi yomkhuhlane endaweni yakho). Izingane ezincane ezineminyaka eyisithupha kuya kwengu-8 ubudala ezithola umkhuhlane okokuqala kufanele zibe nemithamo emibili, ihlukaniswe inyanga eyodwa, kusho uDkt Patel.

Amakhemisi amaningi okuthengisa aqala ukunikeza umkhuhlane ukudutshulwa ekuqaleni kuka-Agasti. Imitholampilo yezokwelapha ijwayele ukuthola isitoko sayo ngemuva kwesikhashana, imvamisa ekupheleni kukaSepthemba. UDkt Nelligan ukhuthaza iziguli ukuthi zithole umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane ngokushesha nje lapho usutholakala. Ngokuncanyelwayo, kufanele uthole umuthi wokugoma ekupheleni kuka-Okthoba ukuze umbozwe ngaphambi kokuba umkhuhlane uqale ukudluliselwa endaweni yakho, usho kanje.

Kepha, uma ungawenzi umnqamulajuqu ka-Okthoba, ungavumeli lokho kukuvimbe ekutholeni konke . Uma umuntu engawutholi umuthi wakhe wokugomela umkhuhlane ekupheleni kuka-Okthoba, kusazuzisa ukugoma phakathi nayo yonke inkathi yomkhuhlane, kusho uDkt. Patel.

Esinye isizathu sokuthi umkhuhlane wakho udutshulwe ASAP? Ukuze uzivikele esimeni esingalindelekile sokushoda komuthi wokugoma. Izinkinga zokukhiqiza nokuthumela ziholele ekusweleni komuthi wokugoma ngo-2004 , okuholela i-CDC nezinye izinhlangano ukubeka phambili ukugonyelwa imikhuhlane kwamaqembu asengozini enkulu kubantu abaningi. Futhi ngenkathi lolu hlobo lwenkinga lungalindelwe kule nkathi yomkhuhlane, ngaso sonke isikhathi kungcono ukuzilungiselela.

Isizathu kuphela ongase ufune ukubambezeleka ngaso ukuthola isibhamu uma unemfiva. Ukudutshulwa kungahle kudidanise amasosha akho omzimba, okuholele ekuphenduleni okuqinile emuthini. Kepha lapho nje umkhuhlane usuphelile, kufanele ube ukulungele ukugoqa imikhono yakho bese uthola isibhamu sakho. Kungakhathalekile ukuthi uthola nini umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wakho, yazi ukuthi kuthatha amasonto amabili agcwele ukuthi izinzuzo zawo zokuzivikela zingene ngokuphelele, bobabili uDkt. UPatel noNelligan bayavuma.

4. Kufanele ngiyephi lapho ngihlaselwa umkhuhlane?

Umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane uyatholakala ezindaweni eziningi. Iningi labantu ligonywa emahhovisi odokotela noma ekhemisi. Abanye abaqashi banikela ngemitholampilo yokudutshulwa yimfuluwenza, kanjalo nezinye izinhlaka zikahulumeni kanye nezikhungo zezempilo zasekolishi. Kukhona ngisho ne- Isitholi Somuthi Wokugoma map ezokuqondisa ezindaweni ezinikeza umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane (neminye imishanguzo) endaweni yakho.

Yize kungenandaba ukuthi uyaphi, kungaba kuhle ukuvakashela umhlinzeki wakho wezempilo oyinhloko. Lowo ngumuntu owazi izimo zakho zempilo nomlando wakho kangcono kakhulu, futhi uma isiguli sinemibuzo noma okukhathazayo, lowo mhlawumbe ngumuntu ongaphendula leyo mibuzo kangcono kakhulu, kusho uDkt Nelligan. Kepha uma kuba yinkinga yokusebenziseka kalula noma ngabe uzokuthola noma cha, ngicabanga ukuthi ukukuthola endaweni elula kunazo zonke kulungile.

OKUSHIWO: Okufanele ukwazi ngokugoma ekhemisi

5. Udutshulwa malini umkhuhlane?

Ngokuya ngezindleko, umshuwalense (kufaka phakathi Imithi , I-Medicaid, izinkampani zomshuwalense ezizimele, kanye nezinhlelo zemakethe yezempilo) kufanele zimboze umkhuhlane wakho. Kodwa-ke, kungadingeka ukuthi uthole ukugonywa kwakho komkhuhlane endaweni ethile — ngakho-ke qiniseka ukuthi uhlola ngaphambi kokungena.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinhlangano eziningi ziyanikela umkhuhlane wamahhala imitholampilo isizini yonke yalabo abangenayo imishwalense noma ukufinyeleleka. Uma uvala ukuthi udinga ukukhokha ephaketheni ngokudutshulwa kwakho komkhuhlane, qaphela ukuthi intengo iyahluka kuye ngokuthi uyithola kuphi.

I gama le-brand Thola isigqebhezana
Afluria Thola isigqebhezana
Fluad Thola isigqebhezana
I-Fluarix Thola isigqebhezana
I-Flublok Thola isigqebhezana
I-Flucelvax Thola isigqebhezana
I-FluLaval Thola isigqebhezana
I-FluMist Thola ikhadi le-Rx
I-Fluzone Thola isigqebhezana

Uma ungaqiniseki ukuthi yimuphi umkhuhlane owudingile, ungathatha i- ikhadi lesaphulelo emakhemisi amakhulu kakhulu futhi usokhemisi wakho uzothola ukonga okuhle kakhulu kuwe.

6. Ngabe umkhuhlane udutshuliwe?

Umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane uphephile cishe kuwo wonke umuntu.

Imishanguzo yomkhuhlane ibilokhu ikhona amashumi eminyaka futhi ukuphepha kuqhubekile nokubhekwa kuyo yonke inkathi ngayinye, kusho uDkt. Patel. Sinezigidi zamaphoyinti wedatha [athi] kuphephile. Uyanezela ukuthi ngesizini yomkhuhlane ka-2018-2019, imithamo eyizigidi eziyi-169 yomuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane yasatshalaliswa ngaphandle kwesibonakaliso somphumela noma izingqinamba ezinkulu.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, awunakuthola umkhuhlane ngokuphelele ekudutshulweni ngumkhuhlane , uthi. Abanye abantu bangase babe nezimpawu ezifana nezomkhuhlane ezinesilinganiso esiphakathi, kuya kancane, njengokuqaqamba nobuhlungu endaweni yomjovo, ukukhathala, ikhanda elibuhlungu, izinhlungu zemisipha, kanye / noma umkhuhlane osezingeni eliphansi — kepha lokhu hhayi umkhuhlane nemiphumela engemihle akunakwenzeka ukukuvimbela ekwenzeni inqubo yakho yansuku zonke. Umzimba wakho umane nje uphendula amasosha omzimba emuthini, uyachaza. Amasosha omzimba akho avuselelwa ukuzivikela, usho kanje.

Okunye ukukhathazeka okuvamile mayelana nomkhuhlane? Ukungezwani namaqanda. Imithi eminingi yokugomela imfuluwenza yenzelwe amaprotheni amaqanda, okusho ukuthi kunamathuba okulandelela inani lamaprotheni amaqanda kulomuthi wokugoma uqobo. Ngenhlanhla, isibhamu somkhuhlane siphephile kubantu abaphikisana namaqanda, kusho uDkt. Patel.

Esikutholile ukuthi (iningi) labantu abanezifo zokungezwani namaqanda bangathola noma yimiphi imithi yokugomela umkhuhlane enelayisense, efanele iminyaka ekhona manje, usho kanje.

Okuhlukile kungaba ngabantu abanezifo ezinzima zamaqanda, isb., Uhlobo lokungezwani komzimba oluholela ku-anaphylaxis. Kuleli qembu, uncoma ukuthi ucele umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane ohlanganisayo , engakhiqizwa ngamaqanda enkukhu.

Okunye ukungezwani komzimba nomkhuhlane akuvamile, uthi. Noma ngubani onezinkinga, noma kunjalo, kufanele athole umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane esimweni sezokwelapha.

7. Uphumelela kangakanani umkhuhlane?

Ngakho-ke konke okushiwo, kuzokwamukela umkhuhlane isiqinisekiso ukuthi ngeke uwuthole umkhuhlane? Cha, ukusebenza komuthi wokugomela akunaphutha. Kodwa uma ugula, amathuba okugula kakhulu noma izinkinga ezihlobene nomkhuhlane ancipha kakhulu, kuchaza uDkt. Patel. Ngokwe-CDC , umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane wehlisa ubungozi bokugula komkhuhlane ngo 40% kuya ku-60% .

Kwesinye isikhathi abantu bacabanga ukuthi umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane uzovikela abantu ngo-100%, kepha… ukuthi umuthi wokugomela umkhuhlane usebenza kahle kangakanani kuncike ezintweni eziningi ezahlukahlukene, futhi lokho kuguquka unyaka nonyaka, usho kanjalo. Kepha uma sibheka abantu asebeke baba sesibhedlela, labo ababa nezinkinga zomkhuhlane yilabo abangakagonywanga.

Uma kukhulunywa ngomkhuhlane, izinombolo ziyazikhulumela. Kuyo yonke inkathi yomkhuhlane ka-2017-2018, ethathwa njengenkathi ebucayi kakhulu, cishe abantu abadala abangama-80,000 nezingane ezingama-81 (ikakhulukazi ezingagonyiwe) babulawa yizinkinga ezihlobene nomkhuhlane. Cishe abayi-900,000 abanye balaliswe esibhedlela, ngokusho kweNational Foundation for Infectious Disease , futhi njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, umkhuhlane ubangela izigidi zezifo unyaka nonyaka e-United States.

Lokho kuyizinombolo ezinkulu, futhi uma sikwazi ukuvimbela [umkhuhlane], kunciphisa izinsuku zokungasebenzi, izinsuku zokugula, izinkinga, futhi kunciphisa umthwalo omkhulu kumuntu nomndeni, kusho uDkt. Patel. Kuyisifo esivinjelwe, futhi sinazo [izindlela] zokuvimbela izinkinga ezinkulu ezinganeni nakulabo asebekhulile abanenkinga enkulu ngayo.

OKUSHIWO: Ngabe umkhuhlane udubula i-COVID-19?

8. Uhlala isikhathi esingakanani umkhuhlane?

Amasosha omzimba ahlinzekwa ngumkhuhlane wehla ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, okuyingxenye yesizathu sokuthi udinga umkhuhlane odutshulwayo unyaka nonyaka. (Enye ingxenye ukuthi izinhlobo ezisebenzayo ziyashintsha minyaka yonke.) Yize singekho isikhathi esiqondile umkhuhlane oqhubeka ngaso, ochwepheshe bathi uyakuvikela cishe izinyanga eziyisithupha.